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Dairy farms are continually working towards overall sustainability. Compared to farms in 1960 today's dairy farms are on average producing almost three times more milk with about half the number of cows thanks to genetic improvements, better feed nutrition, improved cow comfort, including reduced heat stress, better ventilation and stall design, as well as other management practices. Farms are evaluating how they can reduce potential externalities including air quality impacts, water quality impacts, and any impact on microbial resistance.

Environmental concerns related to the dairy industry such as those in the list below have been studied with reports and related materials posted.

Meeting New York State’s Energy, Environmental and Economic Goals While Strengthening Dairy Farms Through the Widespread Adoption of Manure-Based Anaerobic Digestion Technology Working Paper 
    Jennifer Pronto, Curt Gooch, Pete Wright 
    October 2017 

Dairy Farmer’s Perspective on Sustainability
    Skip Hardie 
    July 2015 

Cost-effective and Environmentally Beneficial Dairy Manure Management Practices 
    National Dairy Environmental Stewardship Council
    2005